Conservation Biology of Pakistan Editorial Management System

Instructions for Authors

Word count

Conservation Biology Pakistan tries to balance the depth of each article with the number of articles that we can publish. Papers must not exceed the following word counts even if reviewers have asked for additional material. The number of words includes all text from the first word of the Abstract through the last word of Literature Cited; it does not include tables or figure legends or text in the body of tables. The Abstract must not exceed 300 words. Do not include an abstract with Letters, Comments, or Diversity pieces.

  • Contributed Papers: 6000 words
  • Research Notes: 3000 words
  • Reviews: 7500 words
  • Essays: 6000 words
  • Conservation Practice and Policy: 5000 words
  • Comments: 2000 words
  • Diversity: 2000 words
  • Letters: 1000 words

Number of tables and figures

Include no more than one supporting element (i.e., table or figure) for every four pages of text (from the Abstract through the Literature Cited). If a table or figure has only a few data points, incorporate the data into the text.

Number of tables and figures

Include no more than one supporting element (i.e., table or figure) for every four pages of text (from the Abstract through the Literature Cited). If a table or figure has only a few data points, incorporate the data into the text.

Appendices and supporting information

We rarely allow appendices in the print version of the journal. Supplementary data or method details typically should be provided as online Supporting Information (see below for further information).

Manuscript Sections

Sections and Order of Sections

Contributed Papers, Research Notes, and Conservation Practice and Policy papers should contain the following sections in the following order: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Supporting Information paragraph (if there are online appendices), Literature Cited, tables, figure legends, and figures. Do not combine sections (e.g., Results and Discussion). The Acknowledgements section will be added to the body of the paper after the manuscript has been accepted. Do not number section headings or subheadings. Do not include a Conclusion section (conclusions are part of the Discussion).


Most people will decide whether to read a paper solely on the basis of its title. Indexing and abstracting services and internet search engines also depend heavily on the information conveyed by the title. And, researchers search for particular topics and then read the titles. If your title does not reflect the contents of your paper well or if the meaning of your title is not immediately clear, your paper will not be read. Titles should be clear and concise. Do not use hanging titles (those with a colon or dash), titles that are complete sentences, interrogative titles, and titles that reference colloquialisms or popular culture. The problem with titles that are complete sentences is that they tend to create dogma (e.g., Wind Energy Development Does Not Affect Nesting Ecology of a Grassland Bird). Scientific knowledge is constantly evolving; thus, what is considered true currently may be questioned and proven inaccurate in the future. Interrogatives make poor titles because the entire manuscript can often be summarized with a single word: yes or no (e.g., Will the Exception to Protected-Area Reclassification Protocols Prove the Rule?). Hanging titles are overused and can almost always be shortened to a title that is more effective and eye-catching without being sensational.


At the top of the abstract page provide the title of the paper. The Abstract should summarize the Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion in that order (i.e., it should be a miniversion of the paper). Key points from each of these sections should be identifiable within the Abstract. The Abstract should not include literature citations, much data, or phrases such as “We discuss . . . ” or “We summarize . . .”


Include on the cover page five to eight words or phrases that will be useful for indexing and literature searches. Avoid general terms such as conservation.


Place the acknowledgment paragraph on the cover page of your manuscript. (Reviewers are not provided with a cover page.) Do not spell out first (given) names. Provide the first initial of the first name, even if the initial starts a sentence. Do not use titles (e.g., Dr. or Professor). Refer to authors of the manuscript by their initials only (e.g., “S.T.W. was supported by a grant from the Torry Foundation”).


Do not use footnotes in the body of the manuscript.

In-text Citation

In the body of the paper order citations from oldest to newest and use name-year format. Do not cite work or data that have not been published or are not available. Include such work or data as online Supporting Information and cite it as such in the text. If the data is available in a publically accessible database, you may cite that database. Include databases in Literature Cited.

Literature Cited

Provide the full names of all journal titles. Do not italicize titles. If there are more than 10 authors, use et al. (Howard, G., et al.) instead of listing the names of all authors. Papers in review and personal communications should not be included in the Literature Cited. Proceedings and abstracts from conferences may be cited only if they have a “publisher” and the location of the publisher (or the organization from which the document may be obtained) can be provided.